Authors: Shivani Pandya, Onur Baser, George J. Wan, Belinda Lovelace, Jim Potenziano, An T. Pham, Xingyue Huang, Li Wang
Objectives: This study quantified the burden of hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF)/persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN) in preterm and term/near-term infants (T/NTs) by examining health care resource utilization (HRU) and charges in the United States.
Methods: Pre-terms and T/NTs (≤34 and >34 weeks of gestation, respectively) having HRF/PPHN, with/without meconium aspiration in inpatient setting from January 1, 2011-October 31, 2015 were identified from the Vizient database (first hospitalization=index hospitalization). Comorbidities, treatments, HRU, and charges during index hospitalization were evaluated among pre-terms and T/NTs with HRF/PPHN. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate mortality-related factors.
Results: This retrospective study included 504 pre-terms and 414 T/NTs with HRF/PPHN. Pre-terms were more likely to have respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal jaundice, and anemia of prematurity than T/NTs. Pre-terms had significantly longer inpatient stays (54.1 vs 29.0 days), time in a neonatal intensive care unit (34.1 vs 17.5 days), time on ventilation (4.7 vs 2.2 days), and higher total hospitalization charges ($613,350 vs $422,558) (all P<0.001). Similar rates were observed for use of antibiotics (96.2% vs 95.4%), sildenafil (9.5% vs 8.2%), or inhaled nitric oxide (93.8% vs 94.2%). Pre-terms had a significantly higher likelihood of mortality than T/NTs (odds ratio: 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 2.3-5.0).
Conclusions: The findings of more severe comorbidities, higher HRU, hospitalization charges, and mortality in pre-terms than in T/NTs underscore the significant clinical and economic burden of HRF/PPHN among infants. The results show significant unmet medical need; further research is warranted to determine new treatments and real-world evidence for improved patient outcomes.
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