Abstract

There has been limited evidence reported about the outcomes of oral anticoagulants among patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially those with stage V/end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This retrospective cohort analysis of five US claims databases evaluated the risk of recurrent VTE, major bleeding (MB), and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (CRNMB) for apixaban versus warfarin among VTE patients diagnosed with CKD, including ESRD. Inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance patient characteristics between treatment cohorts. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for recurrent VTE, MB, and CRNMB among patients with CKD who experienced an index VTE. An interaction analysis was conducted to evaluate treatment effects across different stages of CKD. A total of 29,790 VTE patients with CKD were selected for analyses, of whom 10,669 (35.8%) initiated apixaban and 19,121 (64.2%) initiated warfarin. Among IPTW-balanced patient cohorts, the apixaban group had significantly lower risk of recurrent VTE (HR: 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66–0.92), MB (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.65– 0.88), and CRNMB (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.80–0.93) than the warfarin group. When stratified by CKD stage (stage I/II: 8.2%; stage III: 49.4%; stage IV: 12.8%; stage V/ESRD: 12.0%; stage unspecified: 17.6%), no significant interaction was observed for effects of apixaban versus warfarin on recurrent VTE or MB. In summary, apixaban was associated with a significantly lower risk of recurrent VTE and MB than warfarin among VTE patients with CKD. CKD stages did not have significant impact on treatment effects for recurrent VTE and MB.

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